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The shunt resistor had to be in a range in that if maximum allowable current is drawn from a device the voltage drop over the shunt resistor is less than mV peak to peak as this is the EMICs max current voltage input.
The EMIC has an internal adjustable gain of 50x so that a smaller shunt resistor can be used which also has the benefit of less power dissipation on the resistor.
The high-voltage AC line is attenuated using a voltage divider sensor comprised of 1. The divider ratio is determined by the maximum input range of the CS voltage channel mVRMS and the maximum line voltage.
The division ratio is determined by Equation below. The voltage sense resistor R2 must be referenced to the same potential as the current sensor and CS power supply located either on the Line or Neutral.
The microprocessor and relay circuit has a logic level of 3. Furthermore the energy metering IC is connected to the mains however it has to have the microprocessor chip isolated from the mains because the noise from the mains can damage the microprocessor and especially the reliability of the other components.
So there is a need for a device that can do both isolation and level shifting. Fortunately an optocoupler can do precisely this.
A light source in the optocoupler is switched on when a signal is transmitted to it. This light source activates a transistor connecting both ends on the receiving side.
The choice of optocoupler was mainly due to availability and size. Another important factor was the rise and fall time of transferring the signal across the optocoupler.
The EMIC is set up to have a default baud rate of Because the baud rate is so low, optocouplers can be in the microsecond range. The optocoupler for this project was the MCT2E; it has rise and fall times of 3 and 4 us respectively and as such it is acceptable to communicate reliably at a baud rate of It was also chosen as it was easily available and had a small package with only 6 pins.
Energy meters are part of electricity distribution networks, which measure electricity consumption. Usage of the energy meter in the electricity distribution network requires the energy meters to be adaptable to various configurations.
This depends on the part of the distribution network and the type of end consumer for which the energy meters are installed. These configurations include a wide range of voltage and current, across which the meter should be functional, as per the specifications.
The above requirements demand the metering engine to be adaptable, so that the transducers converting the input signal are selectable, depending on the specification, while still recording the actual values of the input line signal.
The meter design is comprised of many components, which may vary in their characteristics due to the various factors across the meter design. The components that form part of the circuitry include:.
Considering all the above factors, the standard value calibration needs to be carried out to achieve meter output.
Calibration is the process where the line parameters are set to known values and the various signal conditioning parameters such as gain, offset compensation, and phase compensation factors are calculated.
Calibration is self-contained within the CS, and all calculations are performed by the device and stored in internal registers. Compensations require that the MCU perform some of the calculations and then store the results back into the CS registers.
In general, each calibration and compensation requires the following steps:. It is common to perform calibration and compensation simultaneously.
For example, since an AC gain calibration and phase compensation require a similar input signal to be applied to the current and voltage channels, calibration and compensation are performed simultaneously.
The following procedure outlines the steps required to put the meter in normal operation mode. Figure 2. The following procedure shows the steps required to perform calibration and compensation.
A flow chart showing the full calibration procedure is shown in Figure 2. Connect the reference line voltage and load current to the meter with a phase angle of 60o current lagging.
If the reference load current is not the full load, set the Scale register to a ratio of 0. See Non-full-scale Gain Calibration if the reference line voltage is lower than the maximum line voltage.
Verify measurement accuracy. Check the setup or fail the meter if the accuracy is not within specifications.
The maximum RMS register value is generated using a 0. The register value is read as a bit hexadecimal number, which is proportioned to represent a 0.
At maximum voltage 0. Knowing the maximum hardware scaling and the most recent AFE register values in relation to the full-scale input, the MCU routines are able to calculate the actual power measurements.
The application for the gateway is designed completely using C language. The flowchart for the application is shown in figure enclosed. The directions of the GPIO pins are then set to accommodate the functionality used on the pin.
For example the pins at which the relays were connected were chosen as outputs while the pins at which switches were connected were chosen as inputs.
These two serial ports are the ones at which our energy metering nodes are connected directly using UART. Thus only after opening these ports, we would be able to access these ports.
After then we read the previous configurations of the serial ports and set a new one to match our EMIC capability.
After successful loading of the calibration constants, we set a signal handler for emergency stopping the gateway server application.
Here we do all wise deallocation of the resources like server file descriptors, serial ports and all that we have used in our application. As gateway is also responsible for storing the meter readings in a database, here we use sqlite database for storing the reading from the meter in a structured format.
If the database file was not there initially, it is created else it is opened. Now to implement parallelism in the gateway application, we implement three threads running three different applicational functionalities.
Here we initialize three threads. For the prototype demonstration, we have chosen Beaglebone black, a development board from Texas Instruments as the gateway processor.
It has been equipped with a minimum set of features to allow the user to experience the power of the processor and is not intended as a full development platform as many of the features and interfaces supplied by the processor are not accessible from the BeagleBone Black via onboard support of some interfaces.
BeagleBone Black is not a complete product designed to do any particular function. It is a foundation for experimentation and learning how to program the processor and to access the peripherals by the creation of your own software and hardware.
It also offers access to many of the interfaces and allows for the use of add-on boards called capes, to add many different combinations of features.
A user may also develop their own board or add their own circuit. This Application will be responsible for communication from gateway through Wi-Fi.
Then it will send command for specific data as required by user and then it will display the data send by gateway in different form.
There are various Buttons for various types of data to be displayed, on each click a specific command will be sent so that gateway will recognize that which data to be sent to user from Database.
This meter is smart in the sense that we can set a limit of energy consumption in the application the meter will send that limit to gateway, gateway will keep track of energy consumption on reaching that limit it will automatically turn OFF the appliances.
In the above picture we can see that Meter1 is enabled while Meter2 is not, thus we will be able to use buttons of meter 1 only; Buttons related to meter 2 are disabled to prevent them from accidental use.
Also there are three buttons to send commands for retrieving current usage data, data usage of previous weeks of current month and previous day data consumption.
The current usage will be shown on the same screen and the data that will be shown is Power, Voltage, Current, and Energy. The other commands will cause data to be displayed on different Activity in form of graphs.
At the bottom the text box is to set limit for monthly consumption, at button below that will show the Energy consumption of previous month.
For showing data in form of graphs we have used Achartengine library Which we have to copy in libs folder of project and we have to add its graphical activity in our mainfest file.
We have used Achartengine because it is free, lite and supports various types of graphs. To send command and receive data we have used Stream Sockets, because in case of UDP sockets there may be chance that data may be lost which will cause application to behave abnormally.
Data sending and receiving is a time consuming process so for each communication a thread will be created, Communication will happen in its handler and results will be published by its runnable in main thread.
On close of each thread its socket will also be closed. TCP Sockets provide a reliable, bidirectional, byte-stream communication channel. Bidirectional means that data may be transmitted in either direction between two sockets.
Byte-stream means that, as with pipes, there is no concept of message boundaries. Thus we should use. We have used here Threads, for each click to perform a network operation a thread will be created which will be responsible for data transfer.
Also for each thread we need to implement a handler and a runnable method. HANDLER- Handlers are used to schedule the actions in thread, in broad sense we can say that it queues the list of actions to be performed.
Or to enqueue an action to be performed on a different thread. The connections of other parts of the circuit like switches, relays and metering node to the gateway is shown in figure above.
Two energy metering nodes as described in section 2. The energy metering nodes receives its isolated power and non-isolate power from the gateway itself.
Because the EMIC works in direct connection with the mains power sensing circuitry, so all of its pins are being exposed to mains current.
Thus to make it not harm the gateway circuitry, optoisolator based isolation circuit is being provided and thus a safe IO connection is made to the gateway.
Both the RXD and TXD pins are galvanically isolated from the mains and thus the beaglebone circuit is well protected from any mains signal. Die Abtastung und Bildung des Digitalsignals erfolgt üblicherweise in konstanten Zeitintervallen, allerdings ist dies nicht zwingend notwendig.
Ein Digitalsignal x [ n ] kann als eine Folge von Zahlen, welche aus einem abgegrenzten Wertvorrat stammen, beschrieben werden.
Der Index n stellt die auf die Abtastrate normierte Zeitvariable dar — üblicherweise erfolgt die Abtastung zu konstanten zeitlichen Abständen T s. Der Kehrwert wird als Abtastrate oder als Abtastfrequenz f s bezeichnet.
In nebenstehender Abbildung ist der beispielhafte Verlauf eines Analogsignals in grau und die daraus gebildete digitale Signalfolge in rot mit den Werten:.
Wesentlich ist, dass die Werte zwischen den Abtastzeitpunkten nicht Null sind oder andere Werte umfassen, sondern nicht definiert sind.
Die Abbildung auf ganze Zahlen ist dabei willkürlich gewählt. Das Nyquist-Shannon-Abtasttheorem beschreibt in diesem Fall den Effekt, dass in der Folge x [ n ] nur dann die vollständige Information des analogen Signalverlaufs enthalten sein kann, wenn dessen höchsten Frequenzanteile f a kleiner als die halbe Abtastfrequenz f s sind:.
Ordnung gebildet und stellt dann einen zeitkontinuierlichen Verlauf dar, welcher sich nur zu den einzelnen Abtastzeitpunkten in seinem Wert ändert.
Die einzelnen zeitdiskreten Abtastwerte der Folge werden mit der Rechteckfunktion gefaltet. Daraus entsteht ein Digitalsignal, wie in rot in der nebenstehenden Abbildung beispielhaft dargestellt.
Dieser Verlauf f t kann, zumindest näherungsweise, beispielsweise durch einen Spannungsverlauf physikalisch in einer Digitalschaltung und in integrierten Schaltungen realisiert werden.
Dabei ist zu beachten, dass durch die Faltung mit der Rechteckfunktion bei der Umwandlung in den ursprünglichen analogen Signalverlauf mittels Digital-Analog-Umsetzer DAC eine Verzerrung des Frequenzspektrums auftritt, welche durch entsprechende Filter kompensiert werden muss.
Die Verzerrung entspricht der Sinc-Funktion , welche die Fouriertransformierte der Rechteckfunktion darstellt. Höherfrequente Details des aufgenommenen Quellsignals als die halbe Abtastrate, in diesem Fall also ca.
Um diese Werte in Zahlenform darstellen zu können, müssen sie zunächst durch Quantisierung, eine Form von Rundung, in ein festes Werte-Raster eingepasst werden.
Feinere Änderungen zwischen den Werteraster-Stufen werden nicht erfasst oder erzeugen eine Änderung um eine volle Stufe. Send Email. Mon-Fri, 9am to 12pm and 1pm to 5pm U.
Mountain Time:. Chat With Us. IR, or infrared , communication is a common, inexpensive, and easy to use wireless communication technology.
IR light is very similar to visible light, except that it has a slightly longer wavelength. This means IR is undetectable to the human eye - perfect for wireless communication.
For example, when you hit a button on your TV remote, an IR LED repeatedly turns on and off, 38, time a second, to transmit information like volume or channel control to an IR photo sensor on your TV.
This is a very simple, clear infrared LED. These devices operate between nm and work well for generic IR systems inclu….
Use this simple IR receiver for infrared remote control of your next project. With low power consumption and an easy to use p….
This tutorial will first explain the inner workings of common IR communication protocols. Then we will go over two examples that will allow you to transmit and receive IR data using an Arduino.
The next example will show you how to transmit data from an IR LED to control a common appliance, for example your home stereo.
All of the gritty signal processing is handled by a great Arduino library written by Ken Shirriff and allows you to easily send and receive IR data.
Also, the code examples used in this tutorial are found in the examples directory in the library. IR radiation is simply light that we cannot see, which makes it great for communication.
IR sources are all around us. The sun, light bulbs, or any anything with heat is very bright in the IR spectrum.
The answer is that the IR signal is modulated. Modulating a signal is like assigning a pattern to your data, so that the receiver knows to listen.
A common modulation scheme for IR communication is something called 38kHz modulation. There are very few natural sources that have the regularity of a 38kHz signal, so an IR transmitter sending data at that frequency would stand out among the ambient IR.
When you hit a key on your remote, the transmitting IR LED will blink very quickly for a fraction of a second, transmitting encoded data to your appliance.
Each pulse is turned on and off at a frequency of 38kHz. This modulated signal is exactly what the receiving system sees. However, the point of the receiving device is to demodulate the signal and output a binary waveform that can be read by a microcontroller.
By controlling the spacing between the transmitted modulated signals, the waveform can be read by an input pin on a microcontroller and decoded as a serial bit stream.
Thanks to SBProjects. An Arduino or other microcontroller can be connected to either end of the system to transmit data left side or receive data right side.
For the hardware in this tutorial, you will need the following materials. You may not need everything though depending on what you have. Add it to your cart, read through the guide, and adjust the cart as necessary.
You will be setting up two separate circuits both using an Arduino. Be sure to connect your LED correctly! The short leg is negative and is connected to ground GND.
Also, pay attention to the polarity of the TSOP Refer to the TSOP datasheet for the pinout of the sensor. If you use a larger value resistor, the LED won't light as bright and your range will suffer.
Shirriff has written a library for IR remote. You can obtain this library through the Arduino Library Manager.
There are a few common protocols the IR Arduino library supports. Here are the methods you can use in your Arduino code for different manufacturers:.
You will need to fill in the data and nbits fields with a information specific to the protocol you are using.
More information on how use this feature can be found in the IR Arduino library blog post see the " Details of the sending library " section.
Infrared LEDs are awesome. Along with an IR receiver they can be used for remote control and even basic remote data communica….
If you're looking for more documents and resources related to the IR LED or receiver, check out some of these links:.
These simple devices operate at nm and work well for generic IR systems i…. Now you should be prepared to create an IR communication system of your own.
What are you going to control with this extravisible, modulated light source? Need some inspiration? Check out some of these tutorials:.
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Contributors: Member Introduction IR, or infrared , communication is a common, inexpensive, and easy to use wireless communication technology.
Favorited Favorite 13 Wish List. Favorited Favorite 16 Wish List. This tutorial covers everything you need to know about through-hole soldering.
Favorited Favorite How do I install a custom Arduino library? It's easy! This tutorial will go over how to install an Arduino library using the Arduino Library Manager.
For libraries not linked with the Arduino IDE, we will also go over manually installing an Arduino library. Light is a useful tool for the electrical engineer.
Understanding how light relates to electronics is a fundamental skill for many projects. Learn the basics about LEDs as well as some more advanced topics to help you calculate requirements for projects containing many LEDs.
An overview of component circuit symbols, and tips and tricks for better schematic reading. Click here, and become schematic-literate today!
IR Communication Basics IR radiation is simply light that we cannot see, which makes it great for communication. Hardware Hookup For the hardware in this tutorial, you will need the following materials.
If you have not previously installed an Arduino library, please check out our installation guide. Warning: Make sure the folder name that you copy into your "libraries" folder is named "IRremote".
Looking for more power? Along with an IR receiver they can be used for remote control and even basic remote data communication. The transmission range of the LED might not be optimal.
Output pins on the Arduino can only source up to about 30mA of current. Data is transmitted and received LSB first, with one startbit, eight data bits, and one stop bit.
The baud rate is defined in the SerialCtrl register. Afterchip reset, the default baud rate is , if MCLK is4. The baud rate is based on the contents ofbits BR in the SerialCtrl register.
Upon power-up, the CS requires an initial register configuration before executing power measurements. One of the key configurations is adjusting the system scaling for the power meter application.
The key scaling constants are identified through calibration and compensations performed at the power meter manufacturer. Afterthe configuration and calibration constants are established, the calibration constants are downloaded during a normal power-on reset.
The application will start conversions and report power and input performance over time. During power conversions and calculations, the analog inputs are sampled at kHz, decimated down to 4kHzhigh-rate conversion cycles.
Signal conditioning is provided in the high-rate path gain, phase, and DC offset and in the lower rate path no load current RMS offset, AC offset, active and reactive power offset.
Now to fetch real time energy data from the energy nodes, the gateway has to follow a sequence of steps which are described in the section below:.
Increasing the energy consumption awareness in every household is an important step to make the user able to man- ages his energy consumption.
Thus users are able to learn the energy profile of each device and to identify the devices that consume most power at home.
Based on this knowledge, users have the possibility to develop better strategies for saving energy costs. Further, our system considers possible future changes in the energy market demonstrating novel functionalities for energy aware smart homes.
Users could then configure their smart devices to respond to these offers. As smart homes become even smarter, systems could learn over the time and calculate the most efficient ways to configure the home appliance or to provide users with recommendations on how to save energy.
A smart home application has to be developed in a user centric way and must not be purely technology-driven.
It is a thin line between an effective, user - supporting home automation system and an annoying, overly intrusive one.
Now, after having a running prototype we will shift focus to user evaluations, to gain deeper knowledge on how to design energy efficient smart homes.
We also applied novel interaction techniques, which allow users to use their mobile phones as magic lenses to view the energy consumption of their appliances just by pointing gestures.
When users require more details or when they like to compare energy consumption between devices, they can easily transfer the information to a larger display such as a TV.
Users are also able to control the appliances such as turn on, off, start washing, play movie etc. This seamless communication among devices allows users to interact with the appliances using various kinds of device types.
Reply 1 year ago. Hi Abishek, great project. I'm building a similar project with the CS and was curious as to what test equipment you used to do the phase compensation?
Given the App Note specifies using a full scale reference at pf 0. Can anyone please tell me how i calibrate my CS bare IC for V, 15A load, using W bulb as reference load dont have full load for calibration Thanks in advance.
Not gonna lie, you lost me around step 4. Thanks for sharing. Reply 5 years ago. Reply 3 years ago. Hello, I have some questions.
What did you use for the calibration load? I need a 5 A load for calibration and I'm at a lost. And, why the 60o current lagging for the calibration?
Would it be ok to use 5 incandescent lamps in parallel that draw 1A each, after they have stabilized? Thanks you for your awesome project, I'm doing one similar but with an arduino.
Reply 4 years ago. I was trying to work with the CS for a project of mine, but I am stuck on calibration, can you help?
Reply 5 years ago on Introduction. Thanks In fact I tried to but for some reason I am still not getting good results.
It might be my board though. Actually for accurate results,you have to calibrate it at atleast half the load u designed it for.
Say u designed the meter for 16A,then you should atleast calibrate it at 8A,then only u'll get accurate calibration and good results. I calibrated the same way and getting awesome results :.
By abhishek7xavier Follow. More by the author:. Introduction In light of the increasing cost of electricity and the Global Warming campaigns to reduce general electricity usage, there is a growing interest in analyzing power consumption in households.
Problem Statement Most conventional prepaid power meters currently installed in households only display the total real time usage of its power and the amount of electricity available.
Project Objectives and Scope A Smart Meter System is required which can analyze multiple appliances in a household getting readings such as voltage, current, active power, apparent power, reactive power, power factor and frequency.
Energy metering node The energy node unit has the task of taking power measurements when requested and sending them then to the gateway.
Gateway Unit The gateway is responsible for collecting data and then sending it to the android application interface. Android application interface An android application is designed which is responsible for reading the gateway for each energy node connected and is also responsible for setting various gateway configurations and parameters like various thresholds, etc.
Attachments Schematics. Normal Operation Procedure Performed at Every Reset in the Field The following procedure outlines the steps required to put the meter in normal operation mode.
Reset the CS Restore configuration and control registers. If needed, restore the offset registers from NVM. If needed, restore the phase compensation registers from the NVM.
Send the single conversion command to the CS Confirm that the register checksum is valid, or return to step 1. Send the continuous conversion command to the CS Enable and clear DRDY.
Poll DRDY. Full Calibration and Compensation Procedure Performed Once The following procedure shows the steps required to perform calibration and compensation.
Power up the CS device. Reset the CS device. Verify the register checksum to confirm the reset is successful. Perform continuous conversion 0xD5 command for 2 seconds.
Stop the continuous conversion 0xD8 instruction. Clear DRDY status bit. Wait for DRDY to be set.
If needed, perform phase compensation, AC offset calibration, and power offset correction. Send continuous conversion 0xD8 command.
Calibration completed. Board features includes: 1. NEON floating-point accelerator Connectivity: 1. USB host 3. Ethernet 4.
HDMI 5. Debian 2. Android 3. Ubuntu 4. Cloud9 IDE. Attachments Gateway application. Introduction This Application will be responsible for communication from gateway through Wi-Fi.
Sockets exist in a communication domain, which determines: 1. The method of identifying a socket i. Solch ein analoges Signal, das plötzliche, schnelle Änderungen im Verlauf aufweist wie z.
Das führt zu Störungen in benachbarten Kanälen bzw. Deshalb wird bei heutigen digitalen Übertragungsverfahren das digitale Signal mit einem kontinuierlichen Grundimpuls mit spezifischen Eigenschaften gefaltet , z.
Das Ergebnis ist dann ebenfalls ein analoges Signal. Ein digitales Signal ist weniger anfällig für Störungen bei der Übertragung, da die Signalpegel mit einer gewissen Toleranz immer noch dem korrekten Wert zugeordnet werden können.
Jedes Signal wird bei der Übertragung immer durch Rauschen überlagert bzw. Wird das verrauschte Signal wieder digitalisiert, so verschwinden diese Störungen durch die Quantisierung wieder.
Deshalb sind digitale Signale besser geeignet, als analoge Signale, um über lange Strecken übertragen zu werden. Stellt man entlang der Strecke Repeater bereit, die das Signal aufbereiten, d.
Ein rein analoges Signal kann zwar ebenfalls immer wieder verstärkt werden, allerdings verstärkt man hier auch bei jedem Mal das Rauschen mit. Am Ende der Informationsverarbeitungskette ist zur Mitteilung an den Menschen in der Regel wieder eine Umsetzung in ein Analogsignal erforderlich, z.
Ein digitales Signal muss sowohl zeit- als auch wertediskret sein. Im Sinne der Schaltungstechnik ist die Eigenschaft der Zeitdiskretheit auch dann erfüllt, wenn sich das Signal nur zu diskreten Zeitpunkten ändern kann, dazwischen aber konstant und insoweit zeit- kontinuierlich vorhanden ist.
Daneben existiert auch eine Reihe von wertediskreten Signalen, die jedoch keine digitalen Signale sind. Zum Beispiel ist das ein pulsweitenmoduliertes Signal , das aus einem Rechtecksignal fester Frequenz besteht mit kontinuierlich variablem Tastgrad.
Ebenfalls ist eine Folge von Rechteckimpulsen, wie sie bei Messung der Drehzahl mit einer Lichtschranke entsteht, kein Digitalsignal.
Dieses Signal ist zwar wertediskret, sogar binär, aber es kann seinen Wert ohne Bindung an einen Zeittakt mit der Frequenz der Impulse ändern.